I have been updating my RS2 computer model of atomic systems to include isotopes, which brought up some rather interesting problems. In the RS, Larson treats a double-rotating system as a single mass unit, the AMU, with a mass just slightly under that of the proton (the proton minus the mass from the electric dimension). Since the atom is comprised of TWO double-rotating systems, the minimum mass for an atom is 2 AMU. As a "natural consequence," isotopic mass can only go UP from this 2z level, with an upper bound of 4z, at which time the vibrational, gravitational mass will destroy the rotational mass--vibration is 1/2 effective, so you need twice as much: 2(2z).

In the RS, hydrogen is a *compound motion *of a proton, 1-1-(1) and electron neutrino, ½-½-(1), resulting in 1½-1½-(2). It has its compliment, the neutron, which is a proton, 1-1-(1), and antineutrino, (½)-(½)-1, resulting in ½-½-0, the same net motion as the muon neutrino, the "massless neutron" with a near-proton mass. But there is a third combination that Larson overlooked, that of the proton, 1-1-(1) plus "massless neutron," the muon neutrino, ½-½-0. This is viable because neutrino charge is magnetic, acting on the ½-½ displacement, not the neutral electric displacement. The resulting particle is 1½-1½-(1), appearing as 1 atomic number above hydrogen, and turns out to be the *helion*, 3He or Helium-3. Just as hydrogen (1H1) is **not **an isotope of deuterium (2D1), the helion (3He2) is **not **an isotope of helium (4He2). It has a similar structure, but is actually a composite particle, like hydrogen and the neutron.

If you look at any table of isotopes, where there are now 4000+ entries, a great number of them are *below *the 2z minimum limit. Does this indicate a failing of RS concepts? Absolutely not... and for evidence of that, pull up a table of *naturally occurring isotopes*, the "natural consequence" ones. Only 294 natural isotopes have been discovered, and NONE of these have a mass below 2z (once you normalize AMU to neutron mass, as they have five different ways to express mass, just to make it more confusing, C-12 mass, O-16 mass, weighted average, electron volts, neutron mass). (The table lists 296, which included hydrogen and the helion, which are not true "atoms" in the RS, lacking two, complete double-rotating systems).

When looking at the distribution of naturally occurring isotopes, Larson's calculations for a magnetic ionization level of 1 unit pretty much goes right up the center of the distribution, but the distribution bounces around it based on odd-even atomic numbers. I was puzzled by this for a time, until I realized that this odd-even oscillation was actually a *vibration*, specifically a *rotational vibration *of the atom. They measurements were made for charged atoms. In a vibratory system, only the inward motion is effective (outward motion cannot add to the ever-present outward progression). When the charge was outward, the electric rotation would appear "uncharged," as it had no effect on the rotating system. When the charge was inward, the electric rotation would appear "charged," causing a 1-unit mass offset, due to this gravitational charge. Since the rotational vibration on atoms is 2-dimensional, it takes 720 degrees to complete, which is why we end up with it split in an odd-even fashion across the atomic numbers (360 degree electric rotation). The even atomic numbers are the "outward" half of the charge, the odd atomic numbers are the "inward" half of the charge.

Also, the charge, being magnetic, is in space (since the atomic rotation is in time). For a neutrino to get captured and get stuck inside an atom, it must take on a spatial charge. But for the odd atomic numbers, there already exists a spatial charge displacement on the magnetic system, so the neutrino has difficulty obtaining a 2nd spatial charge, since space-to-space is not motion; the odd numbered atoms tend to block the formation of isotopic mass, outside of the magnetic ionization curve. The even numbers, however, have to such restriction and would therefore exhibit a wide spread of isotopic masses.

Looking at the naturally occurring isotopes table, this is indeed the case. Let's just pick some mid-range elements:

Z Element # Isotopes 41 Niobium 1 42 Molybdenum 7 43 Technetium 0 44 Ruthenium 7 45 Rhodium 1 46 Palladium 6 47 Silver 2 48 Cadmium 8Silver's two isotopes curiously split 50/50 around Larson's calculated value, so if you average them out, it is an exact match.

The unnatural isotopes are "smashed atoms," literally, since they came out of a particle accelerator. In those high-energy situations, almost any rotational/vibrational structure could exist for a tiny fraction of a second, which is normally the case with these isotopes. Their technique is much like taking a barrel of apples, loading it into a cannon and firing it at a brick wall, then trying to determine the structure of the atoms from the mush.

Since the RS is based on natural consequences, I believe it is best to stick with natural isotopes for study, and leave the apple sauce to the experts.

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